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Building on the work of Nussbaum and Langton, I’ve devised the Sex Object Test (SOT) to measure the presence of sexual objectification in images.

Interchangeability is a common advertising theme that reinforces the idea that women, like objects, are fungible.

And like objects, “more is better,” a market sentiment that erases the worth of individual women.

Headless women, for example, make it easy to see them as only a body by erasing the individuality communicated through faces, eyes and eye contact: We achieve the same effect when showing women from behind, which adds another layer of sexual violability.

American Apparel seems to be a culprit in this regard: Covering up a woman’s face works well, too: 2) Does the image present a sexualized person as a stand-in for an object?

The breasts of the woman in this beer ad, for example, are conflated with the cans: Likewise the woman in this fashion spread in , in which a woman becomes a table upon which things are perched.